History of Jharkhand[endtext]
Separate Jharkhand Statehood Movement
For a greater part of Vedic age, History of Jharkhand remained buried. Around 500 BC, during the age of Mahajanpadas, India saw the emergence of 16 large states that controlled the entire Indian subcontinent. The supremacy of the Janpads was often decided by the power of swords. Magadha was the Janpad who controlled the region extremely rice in its mineral resources around Jharkhand. In the 13th century, Raja Jai Singh Deo of Orissa declared himself as the ruler of Jharkhand. Later on, Jharkhand region came under the Mughal Empire. Jharkhand was known as Kukara region during the days of the Mughal Empire.
During the year 1765, the Jharkhand region came under the rule of British colonizers. At this time the region became formally known under its present title "JHARKHAND" means the Land of "Jungles" (forests), located on Chota Nagpur Plateau and Santhal Parganas. The subjugation and colonization of Jharkhand region by East India Company resulted immense resistance from the local tribal of Jharkhand. A series of repeated revolts started against the British colonial rule.
As soon as the British took over the Jharkhand region (Chota Nagpur Plateau and Santhal Paraganas), tribal revolts broke out to challenge the British rule. Almost one hundred years before India's First War of Independence (in 1857), adivasis of Jharkhand were already beginning what would become a series of repeated revolts against the British colonial rule. In the early years of colonization, no other community in India offered such heroic resistance to British rule as did the numerous Adivasi communities of now Jharkhand, Chhatisgarh, Orissa and Bengal.
|1772-80||- Paharia revolt|
|1780-85||- Tribal revolt led by Tilka Manjhi|
|1795-1800||- Tamar revolt|
|1797||- Munda revolt|
|1798||- Chaur revolt in Birbhum, Bankura|
|1798-99||- Bhoomij revolt of Manbhum|
|1800-02||- Dukhan Manaki - Munda revolt|
|1819-20||- Bhukan Singh - Munda revolt in Palamu|
|1832-33||- Khewar revolt|
|1833-34||- Bhumij revolt of Birbhum|
|1855-60||- Sidhu and Kanhu movement|
|1856||- Police brigade was constituted|
|1856-57||- Sahid Lal, Vishwanath Shahdeo, Sheikh Bhikhari, Ganpatrai and Budhu Veer led a movement against the British Rule in theSepoy mutiny|
|1874-90||- Kherwar movement under the leadership of Bhagirathi Manjhi|
|1895-1900||- ULGULAN under the leadership of Bhagwan Birsa|
|1912||- Bihar bifurcated from Bengal and some part of Chotanagpur merged into Bengal|
|1914||- Tana Bhagat movement|
Separate Jharkhand Statehood Movement
After the independence of India, on December 28, 1947 All India Jharkhand Party came into inception. Shri Jaipal Singh an Oxfor returned tribal christian who demanded a separate Jharkhand state for the tribal of Chotanagpur and Santhal Pargana. It was the emergence of this Party that the separate Jharkhand movement became purely political. In the year 1957, after the General Election, All India Jharkhand Party became the largest opposition party in the Bihar Assembly winning all the 32 seats from South Bihar and giving fresh impetus to the Government for a separate Jharkhand State. As the strength of the Jharkhand Party was growing, the Congress started efforts to split in the Jharkhand party. As a consequence, Jaipal Singh joined the Congress but N.E. Horo, a close associate of Jaipal Singh, however, refused to join the Congress. In the year 1973, N.E. Horo named his party as Jharkhand Party and on 12th March, 1973, he presented a memorandum for separate Jharkhand state to then Prime Minister. The proposal of Jharkhand state which included not only Chotanagpur and Santhal Pargana of Bihar but adjoining area of Bengal and Orissa. But due to the loss of the Jharkhand Party veterans, the pro-statehood forces whose strength steadily eroded in successive elections since 1969.
The movement again received shot in the arm with the emergence of Jharkhand Mukti Morcha and All Jharkhand Student Union. In the year 1986, AJSU gave its first call for Jharkhand bandh, it was a huge success. Call for boycott of Independance day, the Home Minister, Govt. of India directed the Bihar Government to prepare a report on detailed profile of all districts of Chotanagpur and Santhal Pargana. Again, in the year 1989, the economic blockade for 72 hours by AJSU was successful. On the other hand Jharkhand Mukti Morcha's movement for separate Jharkhand State was on pick. The growing strength of the JMM was reflected in the Lok Sabha and Assembly elections and the demand for a statehood for the first time shook the corridors of power. The Prime Minister of India, Shri Rajiv Gandhi formed a Committee on Jharkhand Matters (CoJM). Consequently, the Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council (JAAC) was formed in August 1995. It was one of the major step towards the creation of separate Jharkhand State.
The Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council (JAAC) was formed which comprised of 18 districts of Chotanagpur and Santhal Pargana and Shri Shibu Soren was nominated as the Chairman of the Council. The Bihar Government sanctioned 24 corores for conducting the elections of JAAC in the year June, 1997 Shri Shibu Soren from Jharkhand Mukti Morcha supported to minority government of RJD Chief Minister Shri Lalu Prasad Yadav with a condition of the separate Jharkhand Bill in the Bihar Assembly. On August, 2000 the Bill to create a separate state of Jharkhand to be carved out of Bihar was passed by Lok Sabha. The Rajya Sabha also passed the Bihar Reorganization Bill on August 11, 2000 and with the approval of then President of India Shri K. R. Narayanan, a long awaited separate Jharkhand State came into existence on October 12, 2000 by issuing the Gazette Notification.